Knee arthroscopy has, in many cases, replaced the classic open surgery that was performed in the past. The procedures are more commonly performed to treat meniscus injury and to perform Anterior Cruciate Ligament reconstruction. During an average knee arthroscopy, a small fiberoptic camera (the arthroscope) is inserted into the joint through a small incision, about 4 mm (1/8 inch) long. More incisions might be performed in order to visually check other parts of the knee and to insert the miniature instruments that are used to perform surgical procedures.
The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the major stabilizing ligaments in the knee. It is a strong rope like structure located in the centre of the knee running from the femur to the tibia. When this ligament tears unfortunately it doesn’t heal and often leads to the feeling of instability in the knee.
ACL reconstruction is a commonly performed surgical procedure and with recent advances in arthroscopic surgery can now be performed with minimal incisions and low complication rates.
The posterior cruciate ligament(PCL) is a ligament within the knee. Ligaments are tough bands of tissue that connect bones.
The PCL — similar to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) — connects the thigh bone (femur) to your shin bone (tibia). Although it is larger and stronger than the ACL, the PCL can be torn.
PCL tears make up less than 20% of injuries to knee ligaments. Injuries that tear the PCL often damage some of the other ligaments or cartilage in the knee, as well. In some cases, the ligament can also break loose a piece of underlying bone.
Patients will tear their ACL in sporting activities such as soccer or football. Multi-ligament knee injuries occur less frequently when at least two or more ligaments are torn. For example, tearing the ACL and MCL, or the ACL, PCL and LCL. These injuries can occur during sports activities or through high-energy trauma such as a fall from height or a car accident.
Nearly all cases of multi-ligament knee injury require surgery. The goal of surgery is to restore knee stability, regain full range of motion, and to hopefully allow a return to athletic activities in the future.
After it’s determined ligaments are torn and require reconstruction, patients are prescribed physical therapy to work on regaining full motion before surgery and to decrease knee swelling. All patients wear a brace to protect the knee before surgery.
Often the ligaments are reconstructed using the patient’s own tissue, such as the hamstring tendons or a bone-patellar tendon-bone graft. Some ligaments such as the LCL and PCL are usually reconstructed using allograft tissue from a cadaver. Surgery is performed arthroscopically, through small holes in the skin, to address the ACL, PCL and any meniscal damage. Some injuries, such as those to the MCL and LCL are performed through larger incisions on the knee.
Experts are researching ways to use stem cells to treat arthritis in the knee and other joints. Many Doctors already use stem cell therapy to treat arthritis. There is a lot of debate around stem cell treatment, and it is helpful for potential patients to understand what stem cells are and the issues surrounding their use in arthritis therapy.
Arthritis is an illness that covers over 125 unique problems and auto-immune diseases that can trigger severe joint irritation and discomfort. Stem Cell Transplants for Arthritis can help manage and eliminate arthritic condition in a permanent, safe and effective way using enhanced stem cells.
Foot and ankle injuries include the injuries in the leg below the knee and they are common while playing sports such as football, hockey, skating and in athletes. Treatment for some of these conditions may be orthotics, braces, physical therapy, injections or surgery. Common sports injuries include sprains and strains, ankle fractures, and Achilles tendinitis.